#### 2013-06-10: Computer Science & Problem Solving

The source for this post is online at 2013-06-10-csproblemsolving.scrbl.

One of my projects is trying to improve computer science education in Utah public schools. As part of that effort, I think about why this is a worth goal a lot. In order to help me solidify these thoughts, I wrote the following essay. I think it captures a major reason why computer science education is valuable for all. I think it also captures a big slice of what computer science is. Although I don’t think it is an exhaustive explanation of either thing.

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##### 1Introduction

Every secondary education student, no matter what field or vocation they pursue, must be able to systematically solve problems with the confidence that their solutions are correct. Furthermore, problem solvers are more successful and fulfilled when they can bring their creative interpretations of problems to bear on their solutions. Thus, we take it as a necessity of a secondary education to provide creative, problem-solving opportunities and give students an understanding of a systematic process of solution design and checking.

Traditionally, educators have thought mathematics and science curricula provide for these goals, although they recognize that arts curricula have a good influence.

##### 2Mathematics

In traditional mathematics curricula, the approach to creative problem-solving is best exemplified by "word problems". In a "word problem", prose describes a human scenario and the student must discover how to model the scenario as a mathematical equation whose solution solves the human challenge. Mathematics itself is the system of design. Students check their solutions with tools like graphs, tables, and by looking at properties such as "Does the slope make sense given our understanding of the human scenario?" Students are creative in as much as they discover ways to understand prose problems differently.

There are a four ways where this approach is lacking and where it is not applied thoroughly.

First, "word problems" are scarce in math courses. Instead, they are an "extra" atop the general mechanical skills of solving mathematical equations. This means that, in general, math course neglect the problem formulation step of problem solving in favor of the solution modeling and solution checking steps. This leads, in part, to the common refrain of students, "When will I ever use this?" In this complaint, they are saying "What are the human problems this solves?"

Second, "word problems" are generally tightly coupled with particular mathematical equation forms. For example, in the chapter on the quadratic equation, all "word problems" are quadratic equations in disguise. This limits the potential creativity of students, because there is really only one way to model a given problem. Furthermore, this means that a systematic design process is not taught, because each human scenario is effectively already paired with a solution. In addition to not being able to creatively express their solution ideas, students cannot learn how to discover solution paradigms; i.e., they do not learn how to recognize when to use the quadratic equation.

Third, checking that a particular mathematical solution is correct is error-prone and relies on the student’s ability to perform the needed operations manually. For example, a student may recognize correctly that a scenario corresponds to the quadratic equation, but then fail to solve the equation correctly. From a problem-solving perspective, they were a success, because they modeled the problem in a way that the solution is obvious (i.e. in the real world, computers can solve the quadratic equation correctly every time); but from a typical mathematics curriculum perspective, they were a failure, because they carried out the arithmetic incorrectly. In other words, mathematical solutions are typically mechanical, but not mechanized.

Finally, mathematics courses in secondary school are rarely about things other than numbers. Instead of solving problems directly on human values, they enforce an abstraction to numbers (and sometimes functions, represented as graphs or charts). This limits the scope of problems they can discuss. It disconnects the student and the math from the human problem. And thus, it contributes to the "When will I ever use this?" phenomenon.

In summary, although mathematics can, and often does, engage creative, problem-solving and systematic design and checking, the typical curriculum is not designed for this end. Instead, math curricula’s goal is to produce mastery of mathematical methods.

##### 3Science

In traditional science curricula, the approach to creative problem-solving is best exemplified by laboratory experiments. In a lab experiment, a student performs a rigorous and structured process of performing experiments, gathering and recording data, and verifying hypothesis about the experiment afterwards.

In general, in secondary school, these experiments are studies of the "great works" of science and not problems where students are discovering the solution themselves. Similarly, it is typical for a course to present the solution in a superficial level; for example, the exact mathematics of physics are rarely used in secondary school because teachers assume students do not have calculus knowledge.

In these ways, science classes are like mathematics in not stressing creativity or solution design. Unlike mathematics, they do not stress a solution "model" (equations for math) because modern models for most natural phenomena are too complicated. Instead, where science classes excel is at teaching a systematic process of checking a solution’s correctness.

##### 4Arts

The arts and vocational courses are rarely understood to be about creative problem-solving. Instead, they are either seen as about creativity-qua-creativity or work skills. Yet, most of them present ideal problem-solving scenarios: a student faces a human challenge (normally their own) and a large toolbox of possible solution approaches with which they must construct a solution and satisfy the teacher of its correctness. This is a maximally creative environment where a student has total control over the solution design step.

These environments are typically lacking relative to the ideal in their use of systematic processes of either design or checking and in their ability to provide solution models that generalize beyond a small number of examples.

##### 5Computer Science

Computer Science (CS) is the study of problem solving and generalized solutions. In CS, we understand problem solving to have five steps:

##### 5.1Problem Formulation

When confronted with a human challenge, our first task is to understand the causal relationship between a description of the problem instance and a description of a particular solution. For example, if we want a solution to planning the price of movie tickets, a problem instance would be a set of information about a particular theatre and a solution instance would be a ticket price schedule. We write this as

 Solution : Problem Instance -> Solution Instance

This means the "Solution" transforms "Problem Instance"s to "Solution Instance"s. For instance,

 MoviePricePlanner : TheatreData -> TicketPrice

Computer Science provides a vocabulary for turning human information (such as information about a movie theatre) into computer data (such as particular numbers). Computer Science abstracts over different domain values, such as numbers, colors, images, etc, which are generally referred to as "atomic data". Computer Science then provides a framework of combining data, namely as: fixed-sized data (structures, e.g. database records), mixed data (interfaces, e.g. circles and square are shapes), arbitrarily large data (lists, e.g. databases, and binary trees, e.g. ancestry chart), and intertwined data (n-ary trees, e.g. descendantry chart). This framework is incredibly compact (just these four kinds in nearly all programs[*]) but incredibly powerful.

[*] The only other kinds of data that computer scientists have discovered are co-inductive (potentially infinite) or transfinite (necessarily infinite), but these are esoteric.

Compared to other fields, CS is unique in making this an explicit step in problem solving. Math in secondary school does not go beyond numbers, so it is not an issue to decided how to represent data. While science and arts typically do not expose a model wherein problem formulation is relevant.

Furthermore, there are typically a large number of ways to represent the human information as computer data for a given problem. Most revolve around bringing students further up the hierarchy of kinds of data (atomic to compound to mixed to ...) instead of through a series of particular data configurations. Furthermore, each point in the CS data hierarchy contains all prior kinds of data, so at every point in the curriculum a student needs to decide how to use each of the kinds of data they know about.

##### 5.2Planning Solution Checking

After understanding the kind of data that a solution deals with, CS mandates that we determine how to check a solution. Similar to the scientific method, a computer scientist designs a set of experiments to check if a solution is correct. These are typically called "test cases" and are themselves programs that a computer can run automatically. For instance,

 MoviePricePlanner( 4 screens, 100 seats per screen, \$500 rent, \$70 electricity bill ) = \$8 per ticket

A CS student would create multiple such "test cases" for a solution, each corresponding to a different human problem. A solution is a good solution when it can automatically solve all similar problems and test cases capture this idea.

Unlike traditional sciences, where the emphasis is on carrying out and planning a single experiment, CS emphasizes how to build sets of experiments that establish more general correctness properties. For instance, if a problem has three different variants (like negative, zero, and positive numbers), then there should be at least six different test cases: two for each variant. (It is important that there are at least two to show that the solution is general and not specific to the details of the first test case.)

##### 5.3Solution Structuring

CS provides a mapping between data structures to solution structures. For example, if during step 1 a student decided that there were two kinds of data inputs, then CS mandates that the program will have to distinguish between these two different kinds of data as one of its steps.

This framework of turning problem understanding into solution structure is a kind of systematic design that computer science teaches. Each kind of data structure (fixed, mixed, large, and intertwined) is pair with exactly one control structure (matching, switching, recursion, and mutual recursion); this means that the framework is compact and natural to teach.

##### 5.4Applying Domain Knowledge

Since CS is just about understanding solutions and their structure, it rarely has anything to say about particular problems. Instead CS must rely on external domain knowledge to actually do work. For instance, while CS would maintain a certain structure for a problem with negative, zero, and positive numbers, it has nothing to say about how the operation on the numbers should occur. Instead, expertise in the domain, say physics or geometry, would mandate one operation or another.

In other words, while there are a large number of CS solutions involving numbers and images, CS isn’t about the numbers or images. CS is about structuring a problem and its solution, then checking its correctness. The best CS tries to look beyond particular domains and discover structures that are not obvious "on the ground". For example, computer scientists have discovered that spell checking and gene sequencing are actually the same problem through this process.

In this way, CS is maximally applicable because a course can combine it with any domain of interest to the student, teacher, or society.

##### 5.5Performing Solution Checking

Finally, CS mandates that we have an unambiguous way to evaluate whether a particular solution (constructed in steps 3 and 4) satisfies the experiments (constructed in step 2). The most traditional way to do this is with a computer program that automatically executes a program written in a computer language. (Although technically this is not necessary; any unambiguous process is a computer to a computer scientist. This is how we can "run programs" on organizations, biological systems, groups of people following rules, etc.)

When this mechanical process is entirely mechanized, like on a physical computer, there is no possibility for a potential solution to be incorrectly judged because of a human’s mistake. This is unlike the situation in math or sciences where a human can make a mistake carrying out the arithmetic or experiment and "discover" that the quadratic equation doesn’t hold or Earth’s gravity isn’t 9.78 m/s^2.

##### 6Summary

Since CS is nothing more than the study of problem solving itself, it should be unsurprising that it teaches it more explicitly and directly. In some sense, CS combines all the problem solving aspects of other fields: every CS problem is like a big word problem where you must combine different math, science, and arts principles at different stages, then follow the scientific method to check its correctness.

One great advantage of CS is that it integrates multiple areas in this way, thus creating more realistic problem solving scenarios and requiring more understanding to apply the right principle at the right layer. This would also be a great disadvantage, as well, because it means CS problems are more complicated; however, because of this, CS provides a systematic framework of design and checking to deal with the complexity.

This does not mean, however, that math, sciences, or arts are less than CS.

First, CS requires a domain such as those provided by math, sciences, or arts.

Second, mathematical models define the framework underneath CS, so as CS students reach more advanced material, it is necessary to understand more advanced math. In some sense, CS is math generalized to all kinds of data and restricted to mechanical computable equations.

Third, the rigorous environment of CS and computer programs is unforgiving of experimentation and mistakes. This strictness is dual to how problem solving in the arts is incredibly free-flowing and unlimited.

Instead of pitting CS against other fields, it is best to understand its ability to complement them. For example: students can automate solutions to mathematical word problems as computer programs; students can model scientific experiments as test cases of the scientific-theory-as-solution; CS teachers could adopt the traditional science approach of studying and recreating "great works" by exploring famous CS solutions; the low cost of virtual production relative to physical production can augment and accelerate the creativity of arts; and so on.

##### 7Yo! It’s almost time to go!

But first let’s remember what we did today!

We learned that Computer Science is the science of problem solving and teaches it directly, as opposed to other fields which include and rely on problem solving but are ultimately about something else, so only teach problem solving implicitly.

Acknowledgments. Everything good in this post comes from Matthias Felleisen, Robby Findler, Matthew Flatt, and Shriram Krishnamurthi. Everything bad comes from my inability to communicate what the beauty of How to Design Programs is.